Climate change has already impacted on innumerable communities, exposing them to increasing hazards and making them more vulnerable; and we can expect this to become more marked, and for some communities catastrophic, in coming years. In order to plan effective adaptation actions, scientific climate change analysis is vital for broad context. This Handbook presents a new participatory methodology for Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis. Its focus on the community level is sharp and salutary. It stresses that communities are not homogeneous. It underlines the need to pay special attention to those, especially women and marginalized, at risk, and less able to adapt.