Flouride in Groundwater: Overview and Evaluation of Removal Methods
This report shares information about methods for the removal of fluoride from groundwater. The methods can be used by domestic well owners and communal water suppliers. Based on available information, a matrix is composed to give an idea about the applicability of the methods for some given situations. The Nalgonda process, Bone charcoal, and Calcined clay are low costs methods for domestic use. On a community scale, the Nalgonda process is also a low-cost option. If a high fluoride removal is necessary then activated alumina, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are preferred methods. For brackish water, only reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and the Water Pyramid/Solar Dew method can be used.