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What Does It Take To Sustain Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Outcomes? Lessons from Six Ex-Post Evaluations

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Evaluations and Research

This report summarizes key findings from a series of six independent ex-post evaluations, available on, that assessed the extent to which USAID–funded WASH activities sustained outcomes three to 10 years after closure and which factors drove those outcomes. These findings and related WASH literature are meant to foster learning and improve evidence-based sustainable development assistance at USAID and across stakeholders in the WASH sector.
Topics in this report are generally constrained to former WASH activities studied through the evaluation series; this report is not a comprehensive sector-wide assessment.