Nepal is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate risks. Climate change is threatening the livelihoods of those directly dependent on agriculture and the natural resource base. Rural women are disproportionately vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to their socially constructed roles and responsibilities and relatively poor economic and social positions. This scoping study addresses this gap and identifies differences in impact and adaptive capacity between and among women and men. It also identifies appropriate and sustainable adaptation strategies to ensure equitable access to resources, rights, and opportunities for marginalized, minority, and indigenous people.