This guidance document was developed in response to the multiple threats of rising global fertilizer prices, declining soil fertility, and increased prevalence of climate shocks faced by smallholder farmers. The techniques in this guidance rely on basic plant nutrition concepts and are sufficiently flexible so that program staff can tailor their messages to the context at hand. Many of these recommendations are considered good agricultural practices and only require creative thinking about how to apply these recommendations given the context and resources available. This guidance document has been written to be used by non-agricultural program staff. The language is therefore kept straightforward and concise.