This report demonstrates how groundwater can safeguard food security while boosting economic growth and job creation. However in most cases, this resource has been undervalued and overexploited, with insufficient regard for its long-term sustainability. This is partly due to a lack of systematic research into its economic importance. With this in mind, the report offers fresh data and evidence that with the right policies in place, we can maximize the benefits of groundwater harvesting—both now and long into the future. The report considers the economic value of groundwater, the costs of misusing it, and the opportunities to leverage it more effectively.